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RUMA comment on antibiotic resistance report from China

The Responsible Use of Medicines in Agriculture Alliance (RUMA) was invited by the Science Media Centre to comment on an article in today’s Lancet Infectious Disease. The article reported that a new gene that makes common bacteria resistant to colistin, a last-line antibiotic, had been found in animals and patients in China.

John FitzGerald, RUMA Secretary General, said that David Burch a veterinarian, specialist in pig medicine, consultant to the animal health industry and independent RUMA member provided the following statement on behalf of RUMA.

“The report of a new resistance gene (mcr-1) against polymixins (colistin) found in Escherichia coli from pigs in China, which can be potentially plasmid transferred between bacterial species and potentially to man via meat, is indeed disturbing and disappointing. Formerly, colistin resistance both in man and animals was thought to be chromosomally related and therefore unlikely to be transferred.

It is noted that most of the genetic work was carried out on a plasmid basis and not on the resistance gene itself, so the final link between pigs, pork, man and human disease has not been completely established. Recent work looking at attribution of extended-spectrum beta lactamase resistance from food to man has shown that man to man is the major contributor (99.74%: 0.26%) (Burch, 2015) due to hospital and care facility spread of bacteria carrying the resistance genes. Further genetic work is required to confirm the direct linkage between food and man with the mcr-1 gene.

So saying, it must be remembered that China has the largest pig production in the World over twice that of Europe’s, they are major producers of generic antimicrobial drugs and their use in animals is not normally under veterinary control. Fortunately, the supply of live pigs and pork is in the direction from Europe to China and due to the nature of the endemic diseases in China, such as Foot and Mouth Disease, it is unlikely that this will be reversed. The possibility of transfer by man, however, is a more likely risk with increased trade and tourism between the two regions of the World. This is a good example of the complexity and global nature of antibiotic resistance and the need for countries to work together to address this One Health issue.

In the response to the European Commission by the European Medicines Agency (2013) regarding the use of old classes of antibiotics, like colistin, which have been re-introduced to treat multi-resistant bacteria in humans they recommended: – “Despite the abundant use of colistin in veterinary medicine for over 50 years, from the available information colistin resistance transmission via horizontal gene transfer or sustained clonal expansion has not been observed for the target Gram-negative organisms. However the rapid emergence of resistance in humans after oral use in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for selective digestive tract decontamination shows that resistance in Enterobacteriaceae can emerge following oral use. The lack of emergence of resistance should be addressed with caution since in depth epidemiological surveys in veterinary medicine are scarce. Large studies combining consumption and resistance are limited, because colistin susceptibility tests are not fully reliable.

There is a need to implement robust systems for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to detect any potential increase of colistin resistance in animal bacteria in the future that could lead to a review of the current advice.”

In Europe, 80% of polymixin (mainly colistin) sales are made in only 3/26 Member States i.e. Spain Germany and Italy (ESVAC, 2015) and it would be of great value to review the surveillance data from these countries to see if the situation has changed dramatically in recent years, before any radical decisions over restrictions of use in veterinary medicine are made here. The health and welfare of the animals treated responsibly with this medication also needs to be weighed up against any possible over-reaction before a full review has taken place.”


Burch, D.G.S. (2015) Use of antibiotics in animals and people. Veterinary Record, 177, 11, 292-293.

EMA (2013) European Medicines Agency – Answer to the first request from the European Commission for scientific advice on the impact on public health and animal health of the use of antibiotics in animals. EMA/363834/2013.

ESVAC (2015) European Medicines Agency – Fifth ESVAC report – Sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 26 EU/EAA countries in 2013.




  1. RUMA is an alliance of 24 organisations representing every stage of the “farm to fork” process which aims to promote a co-ordinated and integrated approach to best practice in the use of medicines on farm. For further information contact RUMA Secretary General John FitzGerald ( or see the RUMA website


  1. RUMA has formulated comprehensive guidelines for the responsible use of antimicrobials in livestock production. These give advice on all aspects from application and responsibilities of the farmer and veterinary surgeon, to strategies for reduced usage.


RUMA Launches New Cattle Guidelines on the Responsible Use of Antimicrobials

The Responsible Use of Medicines in Agriculture Alliance (RUMA) is delighted to launch its revised guidelines for farmers and vets on the Responsible Use of Antimicrobials in Cattle Production. They are available on RUMA’s new-look website at

RUMA Secretary General, John FitzGerald, said the revised guidelines were prepared as part of RUMA’s programme of regularly updating its guidelines. He said that the new revision had been updated with extensive help from the British Cattle Veterinary Association (BCVA) for which RUMA was very grateful.

Mr FitzGerald said that the new version of the Cattle Antimicrobial Guidelines for farmers stressed the need to manage farms to reduce disease challenge and minimise antimicrobial use. More detailed advice was included in the vets’ Guideline to help them work with their farmer clients to achieve this. Both Guidelines include practical advice and highlight the Four Golden Rules on Disease Control i.e.

  • biosecurity to limit disease spread
  • avoid stress
  • good hygiene
  • good nutrition.

RUMA Guidelines were first introduced in 2000 and are intended as working documents. They are updated periodically to continually provide best advice.

Now in their 3rd editions, the short version provides quick and easy guiding principles that can be used as a working document by farmers, while the longer version is aimed primarily at veterinary surgeons and other advisers, to provide more detail.

The holistic approach to minimising disease set out by the Four Golden Rules helps reduce the need to use antimicrobials, including antibiotics, without adversely affecting animal welfare. It is important to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance without reducing the availability of necessary antibiotics.

Like all RUMA Guidelines, the new Cattle Guidelines are available free of charge on the RUMA website



  1. RUMA is an alliance of 24 organisations representing every stage of the “farm to fork” process which aims to promote a co-ordinated and integrated approach to best practice in the use of medicines on farm. For further information contact RUMA Secretary General John FitzGerald ( or see the RUMA website
  2. RUMA Guidelines are regularly reviewed in consultation with RUMA members and specialist groups working in the relevant sector.
  3. The Four Golden Rules on Disease Control are explained in the attached table which is included in the Guidelines
Disease Control: Four Guiding Principles
Rule 1 Review biosecurity of new cattle introduced into a herd Disease spreads around and between farms by contact with other cattle. Screening and monitoring will help to limit the spread of disease. REMEMBER contact can also be INDIRECT by a needle, surgical instrument, manure or people.
Rule 2 “Stress” is a killer. Stressed animals are far more likely to become diseased. This includes not only obvious physical stress factors such as overcrowding or management procedures; but also exposure to micro-organisms which cause major stress to the immune system e.g. BVD. THINK – If a procedure causes the cattle to become stressed, ask “can this be done in a less stressful manner?” e.g. castration, introduction of heifers to the dairy herd.
Rule 3 Good Management and Hygiene There is no substitute for good management, hygiene and biosecurity measures. Cleaning buildings and equipment coupled with good hygiene will all make a difference. Don’t spread disease by poor management and hygiene.
Rule 4 Good Nutrition Good intakes of colostrum provide essential antibodies to protect calves as their immune system is developing. Balanced diets with adequate levels of trace elements, vitamins and anti-oxidants are essential if the immune system of cattle is to work properly in tackling diseases.


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